The datasheet gives you things such as light, tcs3414cs, color light sensors, and integration time. There are many info around tcs3404, color light, and light sensors are described inside the datasheet.
Inside the datasheet the reader can get description around threshold, sensors, and serial interface. These are grabbed from this datasheet:
The TCS3404 and TCS3414 digital color light sensors are designed to accurately derive the color chromaticity and illuminance (intensity) of ambient light and provide a digital output with 16-bits of resolution. The devices include an 8 × 2 array of filtered photodiodes, analog-to-digital converters, and control functions on a single monolithic CMOS integrated circuit. Of the 16 photodiodes, 4 have red filters, 4 have green filters, 4 have blue filters, and 4 have no filter. With the advanced patent pending in-package trim capability, device-to-device and system-to-system tolerance can be minimized allowing very precise repeatability to be attained. A synchronization input (SYNC) provides precise external control of sensor integration allowing the internal conversion cycles to be synchronized to a pulsed light source.
Even more, the datasheet explains discussion such as gain, word protocol, and digital color.