Inside the paper the reader can read info around anodic bonding, lower electrode, piezoelectric, sensitivity, capacitive force sensor, and theoretical sensitivity. This paper contains discussion related to electrodes, piezoelectric positioning, capacitive force, simulation results, and electrode.
Lots of information around sensor, capacitance change, capacitance, springs, force, and integrated fixture are described in the paper. The following are excerpted from this paper:
To take full advantage of the new TEMnanoindentation method, however, a proper force sensor, which was not used in , is needed. Here we report on such a force sensor fabricated by micromachining methods. The force sensor consists of a silicon part acting as the top electrode in a capacitive coupling and deposited aluminium on a glass part as lower electrode, see fig 2. Glass is chosen for anodic bonding and its high dielectric property. The integrated fixture in the silicon part for the interchangeable tip is relatively large and limits the space for a weak membrane. The fixture is therefore suspended with 8 identical springs as seen in fig 2. This yields the required sensitivity.
In addition, the paper tells the reader information regarding piezoelectric positioning system, nanoindentation, instruments, applied force, and force sensor.