Inside this paper we can find info such as design, sensor prototype, engineering, mechanical engineering, scientiﬁc research, reﬂected signal, sensitivity, invasive robotic surgery, force sensor, electro discharge, shaft, surgery, and distance measurement. Lots of info around feedback, prototype, the assembly process, tissue, sensor, direction, instrument, surgical instruments, component force, resolution, required force range, and displacements are explained in the paper.
This paper tells you explanation regarding bandpass filter, ﬂexible structure, robotic surgery, sensor design, distance, strain gauges, research, cardiac surgery, optical ﬁbres, instrument shaft, compliance matrix, and suturing tests. The following are excerpted from this paper:
During minimally invasive surgery (MIS), the surgical instruments are introduced into the body through small incisions. The major advantages are the reduced trauma and shorter recovery time for the patient. On the other hand, the surgeon looses tactile feedback, direct hand–eye coordination, and also two degrees of freedom of the instrument. As the instrument can only rotate and slide through the trocar point (the point where the instrument enters the body), the number of degrees of freedom is limited to 4.
Even more, this paper presents more about needle driver, machine, vertical beams, haptic control, technical engineer, force, structure, radial force, scientiﬁc research flanders, sensor structure, research activities, and assembly process.