There are many explanation regarding electron concentration, noise reduction circuit, pixels, temporal noise, feedback, voltage conversion, active pixel sensors, measurements, moment, gain, active pixel, circuits, reduction circuit, capacitor, thermal noise, transfer gate, sensor, level, epitaxial silicon, transfer, and double sampling are explained in this paper. The paper gives you explanation like silicon, pixel noise, voltage conversion gain, buried channels, open loop gain, voltage, pixel sensor, feedback capacitance, circuit, noise reduction, noise contribution, extra feedback capacitance, test circuit, technique, reset, detector, reduction, important feedback mechanisms, particle detection, region, and output.
In this paper we can read description about pixel, photogate, source, novel, reference voltage, transistor, neighboring pixels, charge transfer, particle, image sensor, feedback mechanisms, open loop, readout node, noise analysis, input, optical applications, photodiode, capacitance, applications, minimum ionizing, and noise. The following are excerpted from the paper:
Three novel integrated CMOS active pixel sensor circuits for vertex detector applications have been designed with the goal of increased signal-to-noise ratio and speed. First, a large-area native epitaxial silicon photogate sensor was designed to increase the charge collected per hit pixel and to reduce charge diffusion to neighboring pixels. High charge to voltage conversion is maintained by subsequent charge transfer to a low capacitance readout reset node. Second, a per-pixel correlated double sampling noise reduction circuit was tested. It requires only one read, as compared to two for typical double sampling in active pixel sensors, and no off-pixel storage or subtraction is needed. The technique reduced input-referred temporal noise by a factor of 2.5 to a measured 15.6 e , rms.
Even more, this paper presents info around drain current, conversion gain, sensor circuits, time, surface, feedback loop, collision point, pedestal noise, column level, epitaxial silicon photogate, active reset, node, signal, resetting current, native epitaxial silicon, noise voltage, photodiode node, channel noise, source capacitance, and potential barrier.