This paper contains info like error, square wave, interface, the conductivity sensor, and frequency interference. Many explanation such as conductivity sensor, conductivity sensors, conductance measurement, and sensors are explained inside this paper.
In this paper we can get explanation about circuit, measurement, measurement method, and excitation. The following are chosen from the paper:
Circuit diagram of the interface (a) C1 R1 1 E1 C 2 E2 a sense force 2 C3 Vex E3 force b Rs2 A1 IGs R2 R3 3 A2 IGS C 4 E4 sense 4 R4 (b) Figure 2 Four-wire measurement of the four-electrode conductivity sensor, (a) constant-current excitation, (b) constant-voltage excitation. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ϕ2 (SS2) Ich measurement of Vex, VRref and VCOM, are given by the equations: 0 V01C01/Cint V02C02 + VexCs Cint Vout TVGs Figure 4 Some relevant signal levels and control signals in the voltage-to-time converter when the voltage signal Vex is measured.
Even more, the paper tells us information around sensor, voltage signal, universal transducer interface, and sensor signal.