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The robustness of the sensor, targeted for utilization in robotic active sensing, is achieved via the development of a novel amplitude-modulated-based electrooptical transducer, an electronic-interface circuit that provides very good noise immunity and a wide dynamic operating range, and an effective multi-region calibration process that significantly improves pose-estimations at near proximities. An experimental setup was designed and implemented for the development and verification of the proposed proximity sensor in a simulated robotic environment. Experimental results using a variety of calibrated surfaces and materials are presented and discussed. It is shown that average accuracies of 0.01 mm and 0.03 deg. can be achieved. The robustness of the proximity sensor is also verified for potential use in grasping objects with apriori non-calibrated surfaces.
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