This paper contains information about dynamic range, measurements, error, and measurement technique. Lots of explanation such as nulling emittance, measurement, and equation are explained in the paper.
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Second, the dynamic range demanded by the quad scan technique is difﬁcult to achieve: because the beam size must be modulated by a p factor of 2 for good resolution of the parameters, quad scans tend to have poor signal-to-noise performance when the beam is large (at the scan extremes), and saturation when the beam is small (at the center of the scan). 2 NULLING EMITTANCE TECHNIQUE The principal requirement of an emittance measurement technique is that the beam size be measured at different betatron phases, to allow reconstruction of the beam matrix at a single point.
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