Many discussion related to displacement, signal processor, and measurement are described inside this datasheet. The datasheet presents discussion about measuring range, signal, and range.
In the datasheet you can find explanation regarding laser, output, and triangulation. The following are grabbed from this datasheet:
optoNCDT 1401 CMOS CCD Laser-Triangulation optoNCDT1401 is an optoelectronic displacement measurement system with an integrated digital signal processor. This sensor measures displacement (position) ADVANTAGES • High resolution 0.01 % FSO against almost any target without contacting the object. • Fast adaption to varying surface properties This compact and robust triangulation sensor is ideally • 1000 measurement readings per second suited for industrial applications in automation and • Output 4 … 20 mA and digital RS232 production.
Additionally, the datasheet contains info about displacement measurement, and sensor.