In this paper the reader can get description about photodiode, detector, fiber lasers, sensors, noise, optical filter, laser sensors, spectrum, and laser. Many info about the ase noise, noise spectrum, the thermal noise, noise current, preamplifier, thermal noise, amplifier, and signal current are described inside the paper.

This paper tells us information around the electronic frequency, fiber amplifier, optical amplifier, output noise, laser sensor, dfb fiber laser, signal, and fiber laser. The following are selected from the paper:

The noise current due to the jth and kth ASE noise line spectra are obtained from the square of the second term in (17), suppressing φn: (18) the following useful relations are obtained: i(t ) = ηe GPs hν ispon− spon (t ) = (19) ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢∑ E j cos 2πν j t ⎥ ⋅ ⎢∑ Ek cos(2πν k t )⎥ ⎢j ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣k ( and 2 ⎛ ηe ⎞ GPs ⎟ RL S =⎜ ⎝ hν ⎠ ηe Aphotodiode E s En hν η0 ⎤ ⎡N ⋅ ⎢∑ cos(2πν s t + φs ) cos(2πν n t + φn )⎥ ⎦ ⎣ n=1 ⎛ ηe ⎞ ispon− spon = ⎜ GPASE ⎟ ⎝ hν ⎠ ηe Aphotodiode E s En hν η0 N ⋅ ∑ cos[2π (ν s − ν n )t + (φs − φn )] (21) Is = ηe PASE hν N shot = 2eI t BRL Each spectrum has the same magnitude, and the total of the time averages of the beat current square is N’ times and: (27) (28) (29) where It is the total average current including the signal current, the ASE noise current and the dark current Id of the PIN photodiode and RL is the load resis

Additionally, this paper gives us discussion such as the shot noise, fiber amplifiers, sensor, the pumping wavelength, sensor output, signal power, heterodyne detection, and frequency.

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